Friday, March 13, 2020
Strategic Development of Apple Corporation Executive Summary This paper dwells upon strategic development of Apple and contains certain recommendation on implementation of the most appropriate strategy. The company is famous for its innovative approach and high quality of products and services provided.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Strategic Development of Apple Corporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the corporation holds quite a small market share and some researchers note that the company should expand. Researchers refer to growth of such markets as South America and Asia. It is stressed that Apple could benefit from producing products for millions of potential customers at lower prices to make Apple products more available. Nonetheless, this approach is unlikely to be effective as it may lead to loss of the market share Apple has now. Appearance of Apple in the market of low-priced consumer electronics will make it develop new strate gies to remain competitive in the market where Asian (Chinese and Indian) companies produce very cheap products. Therefore, the company has to focus on innovations. The present evaluation is based on secondary research. Works on AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic development are analyzed and certain recommendations on how to improve the strategy used are provided. The present research may lack for data on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s expenditures but available information on AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues illustrates effectiveness of the strategy employed.. Recommendations provided include the following. The new strategy should be comprehensive and involve research, innovation, quality and social responsibility. The company has to produce really innovative products which would shape and redefine the market. The use of green technology and contributing to development of communities will enable the company maintain its favorable image among its customers. Introduction Apple is one of the most successful compa nies and it is famous for its effective strategic development. The corporation managed to remain one of the leading producers of consumer electronics and software even after the recession and financial crisis of 2008. It is necessary to note that the company has to operate in one of the most competitive markets, the market of consumer electronics. This industry is booming and companies all over the world are trying to enter it and occupy certain niche. It is noteworthy that Apple is facing hard competition on the part of Asian companies that produce cheaper devices with similar options. At present, Apple again has to choose an appropriate strategy.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, before going into detail on the strategic development, it is important to mention major peculiarities of the company, its history and market. Apple announced that its revenue for second quarter of 2014 (ended in March) was $45.6 billion (Apple reports, 2014). The company is growing and its profits are increasing accordingly. Apple is famous for its Ã¢â¬Å"impressiveÃ¢â¬ products: iPad, iPod nano, iPhone, Apple TV, iPod touch, MacBook, MacMini and so on (Hitt, Ireland Hoskisson, 2012, p. 16). The company started in 1976 as a computer business and has provided innovative products, which is regarded as one of its strategies and advantages. In 2003, Steve Jobs, a charismatic leader, introduced one of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s products iTunes Online Music Store as a Ã¢â¬Å"turning point for the music industryÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"landmark stuffÃ¢â¬ which could not be overestimated (Hitt et al., 2012, p. 16). Jobs was right as it was a great success. It is noteworthy that the company had an inspiring leader who set the major strategic path for the business. After Jobs, Apple still has really effective leaders: Tim Cook, Craig Federighi and Jony Ive. These executives share JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ vision and keep focusing on their high end share of the market. Apple is a globally operating company with over 50,000 employees and it has a vertical structure (Daft, 2014). Admittedly, it is difficult to have a horizontal structure for a global business. It is also important to note that the market of consumer electronics is very competitive. Thus, AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPhone has to compete with products of such companies as Samsung Electronics, Motorola, Nokia. As far as computing and software is concerned, the company has such competitions as Google, Microsoft, Micromax (India) and Xiaomi (China) (Grobart, 2013). It is necessary to add that the market of smartphones is quite saturated with cheap products produced in Asia. Worstall (2013) stresses that a phone at $700 is unlikely to compete with a smartphone sold for $200 and $300 especially in such markets as China, India, Brazil and Russia. Therefore, researchers see two major strategies applicable for Apple.Adver tising We will write a custom term paper sample on Strategic Development of Apple Corporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Strategic Issues These strategies are concerned with the choice of the market share for the company. At present, Apply occupies quite a small share of the market. AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s products are seen as luxury and exclusive devices and services. The use of these products suggests that the user pertains to a specific group of privileges consumers (or simply lives in a developed country with strong economy). As Cook puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"There is always a large junk part of the marketÃ¢â¬ (as cited in Grobart, 2013). Leaders of Apple tend to remain in their niche and do not think about expanding to larger markets. Nonetheless, some researchers see another option. They stress that Asian, South American and Russian markets are becoming a target for many companies. For instance, Worstall (2013) stresses that the potentia l of consumer electronics BRIC region (which includes Brazil, Russia, India and China) is increasing and people are more willing to by app-capable devices. Admittedly, people living in the area will not pay $700 for a phone as they have numerous cheaper alternatives produced in China and India. Notably, Apple is capable of reducing some costs and providing cheaper products. Nonetheless, Apple can lose its status of a company providing exclusive products and services. At that, researchers emphasizes that even though the company can introduce cheaper products they will be still unable to compete with $100-200 devices. Brief Literature Review Innovation There are numerous ideas on strategic development and each company can choose the best option in accordance with its goals and values. Jaruzelski and Dehoff (2010) claim that Apple has always used a strategy of innovation. The researchers stress that Steve Jobs did not try to make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products cheaper or more available to consumers as he wanted to make innovative things that could change the market and the world.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This strategy made the company one of the leaders in the global market and many companies are trying to keep up with standards set by Apple. Jaruzelski and Dehoff (2010) consider experience of successful companies operating in different markets and infer that the strategy of innovation is winning in the contemporary business world. Heracleous (2013) calls the strategy used by Apple the Quantum Strategy. According to the researcher, it implies Ã¢â¬Å"the ability to balance intense efficiency in operations with outstanding serial innovation and addictive product designÃ¢â¬ which Ã¢â¬Å"command premium pricing and redefine marketsÃ¢â¬ (Heracleous, 2013, p. 92). The researcher evaluates the strategy used and concludes that it is effective as the company remains the leader and has its small (but profitable) market share. Importantly, the researcher stresses that this strategy enables Apple (as well as other companies using the same strategy) are able to set trends and standards and , as a result, they are one step forward. Davis and Olson (2008) also emphasize effectiveness of such way of development and notes that most successful companies employ the strategy of innovation. The researchers also add that it can be difficult to utilize this strategy as it needs significant funds especially when it comes to RD department. Nonetheless, the innovative approach helps companies achieve high results as well. Other Components of Success It is noteworthy that apart from innovation, researchers acknowledge that operational excellence is also central to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Sharma (2012) argues that Jobs inspiring vision and focus on innovations could not ensure AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s success which was achieved by a combination of innovative approaches and operational excellence. According to the researcher, the company is successful as high quality and precision are major values shared by employees. Loads of companies choose this strategy and focus on quality and its i mage. They are valued for these characteristics and customers eagerly buy their products. Clearly, this approach is appropriate for many industries but consumer electronics is not one of these spheres. This industry is evolving rapidly and a company which fails to introduce new products often loses its customers. Jaruzelski, Loehr and Holman (2011) also mention the importance of an effective culture. Apple is famous for its culture based on principles of innovation attention to details, excellence and responsibility. The authors note that culture is a key to successful implementation of innovative strategies. The researchers stress that culture is a set of principles all employees follow. Employees of Apple share companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values and the corporation manages to come up with new products periodically. Analysis of the Strategic Issue Winning a Larger Market Share As has been mentioned above Apple is facing a strategic issue. The company is growing and entering new markets as exp ansion is one of the most effective ways any successful company chooses (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble Strickland, 2012). It is possible to expan in a number of ways. For such global corporation as Apple entering new markets is beneficial. Apple is already operating in developing countries but still occupies rather small market share. To ensure profitability and growing revenue, the company may choose to introduce cheap devices and occupy a larger market share. As has been mentioned above, many companies choose this approach in order to obtain millions of new customers in such regions as South America, Asia and Russia where vast majority of people cannot afford expensive products. The choice of this strategy will lead to sub-issues such as reducing costs and marketing new products. Thus, Apple will have to invest into development of cheaper models of existing devices or new cheap devices. Thus, RD costs will increase but there are chances that it will be impossible to reduce the price of existing products or new products to $100-200. More so, products at such prices will hardly differ from those provided by other companies (in China or India). Furthermore, development of cheaper products may extrude attempts to produce innovative products and services. There are chances that Apple will lose its status of a producers of innovative and luxury electronics and will lose its value. It will inevitably become one of many companies producing affordable products and will have to compete with a variety of other producers. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing managers will have to come up with a wide advertising campaign and a marketing strategy to introduce new cheaper products. The company will have to make people know that Apple products have become more affordable. The use of this strategy will also require the change in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate culture. The company has focused on innovation and exclusiveness. These values are inappropriate for a company that aims to ge t a larger market share and sell more affordable devices. Admittedly, all these changes need additional investment. All in all, this strategy is associated with too many risks and doubtful benefits. A larger market share will enable the corporation to increase its revenue due to sales volumes. Nonetheless, low prices of products and services will not lead to significant increase in profits. More so, the company risks entering a market with significant competition and, at the same time, lose its advantageous competitiveness. Therefore, this strategy is unlikely to be successful and should not be implemented. Holding the Same Market Share Another option is to stick to old strategies. Thus, Apple may hold its market share and remain a global producer of innovative and exclusive products. This strategy was already checked twice during severe crises within the company (Sharma, 2012). Adherence to the old strategy will involve significant investment into RD as the corporation will focus o n producing new innovative products. However, this investment will lead to increase in revenue as AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s customers are eager to buy from the company as they get something more than a device. They get a sense of being a part of a community of people who value innovation and quality (and those who can afford it). Marketing of new products will also need additional investment. People should know about novelties. However, this advertising is likely to be successful as customers will learn about a new innovative product which they will want to purchase. It is noteworthy that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture will not be changed and such values as quality, innovation and responsibility will be promoted. Admittedly, effective culture often translates into success. Discussion Methods Used The present assessment is based on the secondary research. Works on strategic development of Apple and its performance as well as data available on the official website are analyzed. Evaluation of the s trategy used is based on analysis of its effectiveness. It is possible to note that the use of this methodology can be associated with certain limitations. Hence, such research may lack for data on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s expenditures (especially when it comes to RD) as the works used contain information on revenues rather than losses. Nonetheless, the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues suggest that the strategy which is being used is effective and there is no need to choose another path. Though, it is possible to highlight some spheres in AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic development which may need improvement. Research It is necessary to note that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders emphasize their adherence to their old strategy of innovation. They do not intend to try to compete with low-priced products in emerging markets. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO argues, Ã¢â¬Å"We are not in the junk businessÃ¢â¬ (as cited Grobart, 2013, n.p.). As has been mentioned above, this strategy has proved to be effective and, hence, it is no time to change it. Admittedly, the company is growing and its revenues increase, but it is essential to continue developing and innovating (Thompson et al., 2012). Therefore, the strategy should be based on the principle of innovation and precision. In the first place, the company should focus on development of a number of innovative products and services. It has been acknowledged that Steve Jobs always felt what would be successful among customers (Hitt et al., 2012). However, serious competition requires more specific data than senses or beliefs. Thus, the company needs to invest into marketing research. It is essential to understand what customers expect and what exactly they need when they are buying this or that device. It can be beneficial to find out what customers value in Apple products and services. It is possible to implement an internal research but it is better to address a marketing research company which can provide information on the global marke t rather than a particular country. RD AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s RD department is very effective as it has come up with a variety of innovative devices. Nonetheless, it is possible to invest into further development of the department. The company employs more than 50,000 people worldwide and it can be a good strategy to launch a wide training campaign. Employees from different countries have to participate in mutual projects. Employees from abroad can travel to the USA and work on major projects. This can facilitate development of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s RD. The company has had certain criticism on development of different models which do not differ significantly from previous ones. Thus, Daft (2014) notes that it is difficult to come up with innovative products and companies often try to modify products which have already become hits. However, extensive modification will lead to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ tiredness and dissatisfaction. It is important to introduce genuinely innovative products as well as services as this will attract new customers and will satisfy needs of loyal ones. Quality The strategic development of the company should also involve particular attention to the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality. It is well-known that Steve Jobs Ã¢â¬Å"routinelyÃ¢â¬ returned products to the laboratory and emphasized that Ã¢â¬Å"Apple must build the best products, periodÃ¢â¬ (Hitt et al., 2012). This should be a motto for each employee and a part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Quality control of the company has to be strict and no flaws can be allowed in products sold. This is one of advantageous peculiarities of the company and it is essential to maintain this image. Marketing As has been mentioned above, this strategy does not require excessive advertising. However, each new product has to be advertised through the Internet, TV and print sources. The focus of each advertisement should be innovative nature of the product. Existing and potential customers have to associate the compa ny with innovation and development. Social Responsibility Some companies focus on revenue or RD and fail to be socially responsible. Apple should remain a responsible corporation which contributes into development of communities. Development of new products has to be implemented with specific attention to environmental or social projects. The use of green technology also pertains to innovations and this is a beneficial direction for the company (Hitt et al., 20). Social responsibility of Apple is another advantage of the corporation and this should remain unchanged. Conclusion On balance, it is possible to state that Apple is now facing the need to choose whether the corporation tries to get a larger market share or remain in its niche and continues producing innovative products. Analysis of works on strategic development of the company suggests that Apple should adhere to its old strategy as it proved to be successful. It is associated with fewer risks and it is likely to keep the company in its leading position. The strategy should be comprehensive as it cannot be confined to a vague concept of innovation. Thus, the corporation will have to invest into RD and control departments to ensure that the products provided are innovative and high-quality. Apple will also have to pay attention to proper marketing of new products and it is essential to focus on such concepts as quality, innovation, exclusiveness and social responsibility. Finally, the company has to be involved in a variety of social and environmental projects. The use of green technologies and contributing to development of communities (especially in regions where the company operates) should also be a part of strategic development of Apple. The use of this strategy will enable the company to maintain its status of an innovative company which shapes peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas on electronics, software and life. Reference List Apple reports second quarter results. (2014). Retrieved from apple.com/pr/library /2014/04/23Apple-Reports-Second-Quarter-Results.html Daft, R. (2014). The leadership experience. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. Davis, A., Olson, E.M. (2008). Critical competitive strategy issues every entrepreneur should consider before going into business. Business Horizons, 51(1), 211-221. Grobart, S. (2013, September 19). Apple chiefs discuss strategy, market share Ã¢â¬â and the new iPhones. Bloomberg Business week. Retrieved from businessweek.com/articles/2013-09-19/cook-ive-and-federighi-on-the-new-iphone-and-apples-once-and-future-strategy Heracleous, L. (2013). Quantum strategy at Apple Inc. Organizational Dynamics, 42(1), 92-99. Hitt, M., Ireland, R., Hoskisson, R. (2012). Strategic management cases: Competitiveness and globalization. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Jaruzelski, B., Dehoff, K. (2010). How the top innovators keep winning. The Global Innovation 1000, 61(1), 1-16. Retrieved from strategyand.pwc.com/media/file/Strategyand_Global_Innovation_1000_2010_How_Top_ Innovators_Keep_Winning.pdf Jaruzelski, B., Loehr, J., Holman, R. (2011). Why culture is key. The Global Innovation 1000, 65(1), 1-16. Retrieved from strategyand.pwc.com/media/file/Strategyand-Global-Innovation-1000-2011-Culture-Key.pdf Sharma, A. (2012). As AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s success attests, operational excellence isnÃ¢â¬â¢t everything, but it is essential. Strategic Vision. Retrieved from tbmcg.com.cn/misc_assets/newsletter/OpEx_0812_Apples_Success.pdf Thompson, A.A., Peteraf, M.A., Gamble, J.E., Strickland, A.J. (2012). Crafting and Executing Strategy. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill Publishers. Worstall, T. (2013, January 18). AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s basic strategic problem: Market share or profit margin? Forbes. Retrieved from forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2013/01/18/apples-basic-strategic-problem-market-share-or-profit-margin/
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
With reference to Bourdieu's theory of distinction and other relevant theorists on social class, give a detailed example of how a specific habitus shapes consumer behaviour - Essay Example In this status hierarchy a person develops his/her social class. With reference to 1960s -70s France; Pierre Bourdieu has analysed the society in great detail. He worked on how the knowledge and usage of different cultural relics have shaped over time. In addition to this he also examined how people develop certain taste for food, clothing, music and their overall lifestyle. Bourdieu also studied the uncountable struggles between various classes and the emergence of their fragmentation in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalist society. He taught people how to alter their perceptions and expectations when they are at a stage of the hierarchy and at the same time he provided options to people to compete for the class position they desire (Bourdieu, 1984). Some of the concepts explained by Bourdieu are clarified in the following section. Ã¢â¬Å"The projection of capital on to a particular axis with an aim to create a constant, linear and homogenous series which helps in identifying the social hierarchy involves a tough operation. In doing this, various types of capital are brought down to one single standard. This theoretical phenomenon has an objective foundation; exchange rates differ according to the power relation amongst the owners of the capital (Giddens, 1994). There is a prerequisite for reducing the spaces between the capital to one dimension, however, if someone willingly converts the capital, the creation of a two-dimensional space clarifies that the importance of exchange rates. Therefore, Bourdieu has extended the phenomenon of capital on the basis of an underlying idea in which capital is converted in normal sense. Although Bourdieu has not explicitly spelled out the foundation of different types of capitals and their conversion rates; they can be deduced by further researches. Capital is capable of bu ilding a relation between two people in a particular social space, but this principle does not necessarily create an absolute order of the society, along
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Chinese Foreign Currency Reserves Swell by Record Amount - Article Example This article tries to raise public alarm over the swelling foreign exchange reserve levels of China and how this contributes to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"worsening inflation problemÃ¢â¬ (Bradsher, 2011). This has to do with its effect on the renminbiÃ¢â¬â¢s exchange rate vis a vis the US dollar.Ã A high level of reserves causes the renminbi to appreciate against the dollar.Ã The problem is this will make ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s substantial exports more expensive; thus, losing its competitive advantage.Ã Ã This then could lead to the loss of jobs by millions of people working in the export industry.Ã This led to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s central bankÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to keep the value of its currency low.Ã To do this, it prints renminbi at a Ã¢â¬Å"furious pace in order to buy the dollars and eurosÃ¢â¬ that come in through trade surpluses and foreign investment (Bradsher, 2011).Ã However, this spawns another problem.Ã The additional renminbi issued causes the money suppl y in the country to rise even further.Ã What was not discussed in the article is the direct impact of the level of money supply on inflation.Ã A high level of money supply circulating in the economy causes aggregate demand to rise.Ã This increased demand for goods and services is what pushes general prices to go up. Looking at ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign reserve levels, in the third quarter of 2010, it increased by $194 million.Ã In the fourth quarter, it jumped by $199 million to raise the total to $2.85 trillion.Ã This increase was much larger than what economists had expected.Ã During this time, China Ã¢â¬Å"doubled its intervention in the currency markets to about $2 billion a dayÃ¢â¬ (Bradsher, 2011).Ã And so, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s money supply was 19.7 percent higher in December than a year earlier. The increase in money supply though is not solely due to the central bankÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to keep the value of the renminbi in check.Ã Banking loans have also risen and measures taken by the central bank to slow down lending, primarily by increasing bank reserve requirements have proven to be ineffective.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Main Purpose of Accounting Essay Keeping track of transactions and recording revenue and expenses are an important process, often assigned to an accounting department or a financial manager. Accounting allows companies to provide reports and insights needed to make sound financial decisions. The main purpose of accounting is to identify and record all activities of the income and the outcome that will affect the organisation financially. All activities, including purchases, sales, the capital and interest earned from investments are recorded in ledgers or journals. Entrepreneurs have to understand and complete a variety of business functions. An important business function when starting a business is accounting. Although many entrepreneurs may have to deal with stacks of financial documents but accounting often provides entrepreneurs with the clearest picture of their businesses success. Entrepreneurs must also keep records regarding the business start-up for tax and legal purposes. Filing records like these with great organisation will help run the business more efficiently and responsibly. Why is it important to keep accurate financial records, and how will this help the entrepreneur? Financial records will become very important when the tax season comes but they are also important in the day to day business. Preparing financial statements such as income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements are important because they show how successful the business is, an income statement list revenues and expenses for the business. Accounting how much income is coming in from all channels, it can include accounts receivable, sales, etc. These items are the business revenues. Expenses should be clear because they are everything that is paid out of the business including the operating expenses, the difference between these will be the net income. To help the entrepreneur in the business, financial records should always be up to date so that it can display an accurate snapshot of the business at any time, this way the entrepreneur wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have to back track, always keeping the business accounting affairs in order. What is meant by revenue and expenditure?Ã Revenue is for the business. This is the total amount of money received by the business for goods sold or services provided during a certain time period. In terms of reporting revenue in a businesses financial statement, different businesses may consider revenue to be received in different ways. For example, revenue could be received when a deal is signed, when the money is received or when the services are provided. Expenditure is spending money in order to create future benefits, which means that the money is being spent on a fixed asset, or on making sure that an existing asset has its useful life extended beyond the life of the current tax year. This could be equipment, property or industrial buildings. The difference between capital and revenue expenditure is that capital expenditure results in an addition to an asset to the business, however revenue expenditure results in an addition to the expense account. Capital expenditures are payments for asset additions and replacements. Revenue expenditures benefit a current period and are made for maintaining assets with routine repairs or replacement of a small part. A capital expenditure will benefit two or more accounting periods and expenses for future accounting periods. Revenue expenditure will cause an understatement of net income in that year. When expensing an item, it goes into the expense side of the income records where as capitalising an item will be processed on the total balance sheet. Revenue income and Capital income Capital income is money coming in from the owner of the business or outside investors for the business. It is used to buy things that will stay in the business for a long time, for example the business building, vehicles or equipment which is initially referred to assets. Revenue income is money coming in from selling goods and providing a day to day service. The main sources are; sales, rent received or commission received. The types of Capital income to expect to incur are such things as: Loans- The amount of money lent to the business from the bank. The lump sum the bank offer to give you has to be paid back in lump sums, at certain amounts, per month over the time period given. The bank will add a monthly interest onto the loan which is usually a percent of the amount borrowed. These monthlyÃ payments need to be paid back, even if the business does not succeed. Mortgages- Mortgages are similar to loans, but tend to give out longer time periods to pay the lump sum back. To secure the mortgages you will need to put assets on line. This is usually the property you used the mortgage to pay for. The types of Revenue income to expect to incur are such things as: Sales- Or sales revenue is money coming into the business from the sales of or services. The sales can be paid for cash, which is the more comment payment, be paid by debit card or credit of the store, being paid for later on. Rent received- A business that owns property and chargers others to use all of or part of the property. The business will receive rent from this inhibitor. Commission received- A business that may sell products or services as a part of another business. For each sale they will make a percentage of what the customer pays for that sale. This percent is called commissions.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
B.F. Skinner Skinner believed in Behavioristic theories. When studying behaviorist theories you investigate the role of learning in the development of personality. The psychologist study conditions and situations that affect the learning of behavior. Skinner defines personality in terms of behavior. B.F. Skinner was born March 20, 1904, in the small Pennsylvania town of Susquehanna. His father was a lawyer, and his mother a strong and intelligent housewife. His childhood was old-fashioned and hard-working. He wanted to be a writer and did try, sending off poetry and short stories. When he graduated, he built a study in his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attic to concentrate, but it just wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t working for him. At Harvard he got his masters in psychology in 1930 and his doctorate in 1931, and stayed there to do research until 1936. He was perhaps the most celebrated psychologist since Sigmund Freud. His first theory was of reinforcement. When a behavior is reinforced, or rewarded the chances of that happening again are likely. He is saying by reinforcement if the person knows they will get rewarded for it they will continue to do it. Skinner noted that the learning process should be divided into "a very large number of very small steps and reinforcement must be contingent upon the accomplishment of each step." Skinner also stated that by making the steps of learning small, the frequency of reinforcement can be increased and the frequency of being wrong is reduced. Another theory was that of punishment. He says in this way he does not approve. Skinner says that punishing a child for something will make him not do it again and that is good in some cases, but what if your parents are abusive. He says that the theory of rewarding is the way to go and punishment is not strengthening behavior, it is lessening the likelihood of that behavior to happen again.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Family individuality is besides greatly involved in this novel. For illustration, Mr. Rochester origins from a rich household, but he did non inherited the belongings from his male parent possibly because of the belongings was inherited by his senior siblings. He come to Granbois to seek his ain luck, his matrimony with Antoinette was arranged by his male parent and Richard Mason, so that he will acquire the 30 thousand lbs from Antoinette which she inherited from Mr. Mason. His male parent purpose was to do certain that the Rochester household will hold extremely position where most of the household are rich. As for Antoinette, she have two first name which is Mason and Cosway because her female parent married two times. Mr. Mason is a rich adult male where he has a boy, Richard, even though Antoinette is non Mr. Mason ain girl but he liked her and give her half of his belongings but Richard are non satisfied with his male parent determination because he thinks that the rumor from A ntoinette Ã¢â¬Ës household will dishonor his household name, so he make up one's mind to take away Antoinette belongings. Beside of cultural individuality, Antoinette and Rochester besides have the cultural individuality. For illustration, they have the similar instruction back land which they are taught to in Christian, they were taught to read book and live in an white Ã¢â¬Ës work forces manner where they learn to dance and imbibe vino, this shows that they patterns the really same civilization. Although Antoinette patterns some of the white Ã¢â¬Ës work forces civilization but she besides patterns the civilization from Caribbean which is largely believe by the black people. For illustration, Antoinette believed in obi, Caribbean signifier of the faith Voodoo, some sort of superstitious because Christophine, Antoinette Ã¢â¬Ës alternate female parent present her to the Caribbean civilization and to obeah. This can be proven when Antoinette ask Christophine to do love potion for her, so that Rochester will love her. Besides Antoinette besides likes to bath in the natural bathing pool merely like th e other people live in Granbois but Richard are non used to these because to him those things looks like in dream he is afraid of that, he do non desire to acquire used to this state of affairs, he feels that England is his topographic point, their matrimony have causes civilization mismatch which leads to a calamity.2. How does the writer of the prescribed text nowadays the thought that being at odds with society Ã¢â¬Ës values involves hazard but following with those values can besides be harmful?There are two society involved in Wide Sargasso Sea which is Caribbean Ã¢â¬Ës society and Western Ã¢â¬Ës society. Different society will hold different values, for illustration the Western Ã¢â¬Ës society wage more facets in civilize people, wealth, position and spiritual life but the Caribbean society Ã¢â¬Ës wage more facets in hatred, retaliation and justness. The writer prescribe it by utilizing Annette as an illustration. Annette as a color individual and patterns the really same civilization of Caribbean people but she is married to a white adult male and he is a slave proprietor, when Annette married him, she is taking hazard which is really important because of the bondage job, most of the black people hates the white people and there comes some chitchat from the people at Coulibri, Mr. Cosway estate stating that the adult male she married is excessively old for her and so when Mr. Cosway died, Annette and her household were discriminated by the other people for 5 old ages until she is married once more. The Caribbean society Ã¢â¬Ës dislike white people for they treaten them, so they will detest their people marry white people and this is the hazard Annette is taking, she knew that this will be the effects when she is married to a white adult male. However, Annette did non follow with the Caribbean society Ã¢â¬Ës values because sh e knows that it will non make any good, when she is married to Mr. Cosway, she understand the white people better and therefore leads her to an more open-minded individual. I besides thinks that she does non wants her kid comply with those values at that specific clip, enviousness, hatred and vindictive. When Annette married to Mr. Mason, her 2nd matrimony, she makes the colored people live around Coulibri even hates her and as the effects, they burn Annette house and Pierre is dead, a greatly risk so. As for the Western Ã¢â¬Ës values, we can see it in the Mason and Rochester households. To them wealthy symbollise their position, Mr. Rochester father wants him to happen his ain luck and this significantly shows that wealthy to them is their position. Rochester prove that this is their society values when he wants to get married Antoinette for her money and the money are given to him without any inquiry. We can besides see this value in Richard Mason, he do non wants his step-sister to hold the same position as him and so he decided to set up a matrimony for her so that her money will give to person else. The western Ã¢â¬Ës society besides judge a individual from their apparels, the manner of speech production and manners. For illustration, Mr. Rochester dislike Christophine for a few ground. Christophine spoke in a linguistic communication that Mr. Rochester dislike, Christophine describe that the xanthous tea drinks by the English work forces as xanthous Equus caballus urine and the frock she is have oning which is soiled makes Rochester thinks that is non a clean wont. Christophine knows that the immature maestro, Mr. Rochester dislike her, she knows that she will ne'er follow with the Western Ã¢â¬Ës values and so she left the house because she besides knew that Rochester will trail her house at last. Even though her action did non harm herself but she did non believe of the effects when she left Antoinette and Antoinette was the 1 who are harmed.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
In the West human rights were born in the modern age as a result of the Industrial Revolution and thrived in the age of the Ã¢â¬Å"liberal state.Ã¢â¬ With the establishment and consolidation of modern democratic political structure since the late eighteenth century, the value of individual freedom was substantiated and power of individuals recognized. Consequently, the mentality instilled in people for centuries that the sovereignty belongs to the ruler broke off and was replaced by the new mindset that the nation is rooted in people. It was John Locke (1632-1704) who first set rights on the political agenda. He asserted that every man has the right Ã¢â¬Å"to preserve his life, liberty and estateÃ¢â¬ (Locke, 1962, p. 87). This ideal was later echoed andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The fact that the concept of human rights originated in the West does not undermine its universal applicability. The creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) signifies the recogn ition of human rights across the world. Forty-eight states voted in favor of the adoption of the UDHR in 1948. By 2011 the number of United Nations member-states had increased to 193 (United Nations Human Rights, 2014). However, in reality the confrontation between universalism and cultural relativism as to whether human rights are universally applicable underlies the discussion of human rights in theory and practice. The rationale behind the universalist interpretation of human rights is that its genuine concern for human dignity and flourishing finds echoes in all cultures, religions, and traditions that have survived the transition to the modern era. In contrast, the theory of cultural relativism holds that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and activities can only be comprehended in terms of their own culture; therefore there are no objective standards by which others can be judged. Thus, moral values are historically and culturally specific rather than universal. Jack Donnelly (198 9), a renowned human rights scholar, maintained that cultural relativism in reality had little to do with local or indigenous cultures and often